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    RESOURCES & MATERIALS

    RESOURCES & MATERIALS

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    CONFERENCES WEBINARS & EVENTS

    CONFERENCES WEBINARS & EVENTS

Gender Glossary

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  • Affirmative action measures

    Positive measures aimed at favoring access by members of certain categories of people, in this particular case, women, to rights which they are guaranteed, to the same extent as members of other categories, in this particular case, men.  (Source: Final report of the Group of Specialists on positive action: Positive action in the field of equality between women and men, April 2000)
  • Assisting spouses

    The spouses of people who are engaged in work usually of a self-employed or independent nature, where the spouse is an important contributor to the work but does not necessarily receive direct remuneration for this work and is often not entitled to social protection benefits. (Source: European Commission, 100 Words for Equality: A glossary of Terms on Equality between Women and Men, 1998) 
  • Atypical work employment

    Atypical work employment, or non-standard employment, falls outside the definition of standard employment, and covers a large variety of forms of work, characterized by flexibility and reduced security. This include part-time work, casual and seasonal work, job sharing, fixed-term contracts, temporary agency work, home-based work, remote working, self-employment, and work by unpaid spouses or family members in small family-run enterprises. Certain forms of atypical work lack adequate regulation and thus undermine job security and social protection. Women are more likely than men to be found in such ‘atypical’ work situations, and, as a result, their situation is often underestimated and less well-described than that of men. (Source: European Institute for Gender Equality, Gender Equality Glossary and Thesaurus - http://eige.europa.eu/rdc/thesaurus)  
  • Caring masculinity

    The counterpart to hegemonic masculinity (see below). It is based on men taking care-giving roles (as involved fathers) instead of provider roles (as breadwinners). (Source: European Commission, The Role of Men in Gender Equality – European strategies & insights, December 2012)
  • Child marriage

    Early or child marriage is the union, whether official or not, of two persons, at least one of whom is under 18 years of age. By virtue of their age, child spouses are considered to be incapable of giving full consent, meaning that child marriages should be considered a violation of human rights and the rights of the child. Child marriage is a gendered phenomenon and the overall number of boys in child marriages around the world is significantly lower than that of girls, and married girls are vulnerable to other forms of gender-based violence and discrimination within marriage. They also often experience complications during pregnancy and childbirth, as their bodies are not ready for childbearing. The right of girls to be protected from child marriage is upheld in various international instruments, including the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), both of which call for countries to legislate a minimum marriage age of 18. But despite this legal protection, each year, thousands of girls are married before their 18th birthday. (Source: UNFPA, Child Marriage in Eastern Europe and Central Asia Regional Overview, January 2014) 
  • Cultural sensitivity

    Approaches that take into consideration cultural differences and similarities, without assigning them a positive or negative value. In 1948, the international community endorsed basic human rights principles. Despite diverse cultures and circumstances, UN Member States agreed on the fundamental dignity and equality of all human beings. The effectiveness of applying these principles to some of the most sensitive and intimate spheres of human existence – such as sexuality, reproductive health and gender - depends on part on its ability to understand the cultural dynamics of the communities it works with. (Source: UNFPA, Culturally sensitive approaches - http://www.unfpa.org/culture)
  • Cultural violence

    Cultural violence can be defined as aspects of culture and social life, such as religion, ideology, language, art and science, which can be used to justify or legitimize direct or structural violence. (Source: Galtung, J. “Cultural Violence”, Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 27, No 3, 1990)
  • Custodial violence against women

    Violence against women and girls who are confined to a location such as a police cell, retention centres, prison, social welfare institutions and immigration centres. Such violence includes sexual violence, physical and verbal harassment and other breaches of their integrity as human beings. (Source: European Institute for Gender Equality, Gender Equality Glossary and Thesaurus - http://eige.europa.eu/rdc/thesaurus)
  • Date rape

    Non-consensual vaginal, anal or oral penetration of a sexual nature of the body of another person with any bodily part or object. Other non-consensual acts of a sexual nature, or causing another person to engage in non-consensual acts of a sexual nature with a third person, are both considered as date rape, or acquaintance rape. (Source: Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence, Council of Europe Treaty Series, no. 210, 2011)
  • Early marriage

    Early marriage has been interpreted, on separate occasions, as synonymous with child marriage or as more inclusive than child marriage, e.g. including the marriage of individuals whose level of physical, emotional, sexual and psychosocial development makes them unable to freely and fully consent to marriage. Many United Nations resolutions and reports use ‘early marriage’ and ‘child marriage’ interchangeably, without any noticeable distinction. Others use the phrase ‘early marriage, including child marriage’, implying that early marriage encompasses child marriage but also includes situations that do not qualify as child marriage, such as marriages in which one or both spouses are below the age of 18 but have attained majority under state laws. (Source: European Institute for Gender Equality, Gender Equality Glossary and Thesaurus - http://eige.europa.eu/rdc/thesaurus)
  • Economic abuse

    Causing/or attempting to cause an individual to become financially dependent on another person, by obstructing their access to or control over resources and/or independent economic activity. (Source: UN Women, End Violence Against Women and Girls, Glossary - http://www.endvawnow.org/en/articles/347-glossary-of-terms-from-programming-essentials-and-monitoring-and-evaluation-sections.html)
  • Economic violence

    Acts such as the denial of funds, refusal to contribute financially, denial of food and basic needs, and controlling access to health care, employment, etc. (Source: UN Women, End Violence Against Women and Girls, Glossary - http://www.endvawnow.org/en/articles/347-glossary-of-terms-from-programming-essentials-and-monitoring-and-evaluation-sections.html)
  • Female genital mutilation/cutting

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) comprises all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. FGM is recognized internationally as a violation of the human rights of girls and women. It reflects deep-rooted inequality between the sexes, and constitutes an extreme form of discrimination against women. It is nearly always carried out on minors and is a violation of the rights of children. The practice also violates a person's rights to health, security and physical integrity, the right to be free from torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment, and the right to life when the procedure results in death. (Source: WHO, Female Genital Mutilation Fact Sheet, February 2016 - http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs241/en/)
  • Female infanticide

    Intentional killing of baby girls due to the preference for male babies and from the low value associated with the birth of females. (Source: UN Women, End Violence Against Women and Girls, Glossary - http://www.endvawnow.org/en/articles/347-glossary-of-terms-from-programming-essentials-and-monitoring-and-evaluation-sections.html) 
  • Femicide

    The gender-based murder of a woman; systematic killing of women because they are women. (Source: UN Women, End Violence Against Women and Girls, Glossary - http://www.endvawnow.org/en/articles/347-glossary-of-terms-from-programming-essentials-and-monitoring-and-evaluation-sections.html) 
  • Feminism(s)

    A political stance and commitment to change the political position of women and promote gender equality, based on the thesis that women are subjugated because of their gendered body, i.e. sex. All feminisms agree that women are in the subordinated position in relation to men. (Source: European Institute for Gender Equality, Gender Equality Glossary and Thesaurus - http://eige.europa.eu/rdc/thesaurus)
  • Forced sterilization

    Performing surgery which has the purpose or effect of terminating a woman’s capacity to naturally reproduce without her prior and informed consent or understanding of the procedure. (Source: Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence, Council of Europe Treaty Series, no. 210, 2011)
  • Gender

    The economic, social and cultural attributes and opportunities associated with being male and female and the relationships between women and men and girls and boys, as well as the relations between women and those between men. These attributes, opportunities and relationships are socially constructed, and learned through socialization processes. (Source: OSAGI, Gender Mainstreaming: Strategy for Promoting Gender Equality Document, August 2001)
  • Gender bias

    Prejudiced actions or thoughts based on the gender-based perception that women are not equal to men in rights and dignity. (Source: European Institute for Gender Equality, Gender Mainstreaming - http://eige.europa.eu/gender-mainstreaming/) 
  • Gender contract

    A set of implicit and explicit rules governing gender relations which allocate different work and value, responsibilities and obligations to men and women and is maintained on three levels: cultural superstructure - the norms and values of society; institutions - family welfare, education and employment systems, etc., and socialization processes - notably in the family. (Source: European Commission, 100 Words for Equality: A glossary of Terms on Equality between Women and Men, 1998)
  • Gender equality

    The equal rights, responsibilities and opportunities of women and men and girls and boys. Equality does not mean that women and men are the same but that women’s and men’s rights, responsibilities and opportunities should not depend on whether they are born male or female. Gender equality implies that the interests, needs and priorities of both women and men are taken into consideration – recognizing the diversity of different groups of women and men. Gender equality is not a “women’s issue” but should concern and fully engage men as well as women. Equality between women and men is a human rights issue and as a precondition for, and indicator of, sustainable people-centered development. (Source: OSAGI, Gender Mainstreaming: Strategy for Promoting Gender Equality Document, August 2001)
  • Gender identity

    The attitudes and behaviors that society considers appropriate for men and women on the basis of their biological sex. (Source: Human Rights Campaign – http://www.hrc.org/issues/gender_identity_terms_definitions.asp) 
  • Gender mainstreaming

    A strategy towards realizing gender equality. It involves the integration of a gender perspective into the preparation, design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of policies, regulatory measures and spending programmes, with a view to promoting equality between women and men, and combating discrimination. (Source: European Institute for Gender Equality, Gender Mainstreaming - http://eige.europa.eu/gender-mainstreaming/)
  • Gender programming continuum

    Indicators of to which degree programmes address – or fail to address – gender-related norms: (1) Gender exploitative programmes: use and reinforce gender inequalities in the pursuit of health and demographic goals. This is a negative level of programming that should be avoided. (2) Gender neutral or gender blind programmes: distinguish little between the needs of men and women, neither reinforcing nor questioning gender roles. (3) Gender sensitive or gender aware programmes: recognize the specific needs and realities of men and women based on the social construction of gender roles, but do not necessarily seek to change or influence gender roles and relations. (4) Gender transformative programmes: seek to challenge and transform rigid gendered norms and relations. Gender transformative programming generally entails moving beyond the individual level to also address the interpersonal, socio-cultural, structural and community factors that influence gender-related attitudes and behaviors. The EECA MenEngage Platform is an example of a gender transformative programme. (Source: Engaging Men and Boys in Gender Equality and Health: A global toolkit for action, 2010)
  • Gender quotas

    A positive measurement instrument aimed at accelerating the achievement of gender-balanced participation and representation. It establishes a defined proportion (percentage) or number of places or seats to be filled by, or allocated to, women and/or men, generally under certain rules or criteria. Quotas can be applied in order to correct a previous gender imbalance in different areas and at different levels, including in political assemblies, decision-making positions in public, political life and economic life (corporate boards), as well as to ensure the inclusion of women and their participation in international bodies, or as a tool to promote equal access to training opportunities or jobs. (Source: European Institute for Gender Equality, Gender Equality Glossary and Thesaurus - http://eige.europa.eu/rdc/thesaurus) 
  • Gender roles

    Attitudes and behavior that society considers appropriate for men and women on the basis of their biological sex. (Source: WHO Technical Consultation on Sexual Health, January 2002)
  • Gender-based violence (GBV)

    Acts of physical, mental or social abuse (including sexual violence) that is attempted or threatened, with some type of force (such us violence, threats, coercion, manipulation, deception, cultural expectations, weapons or economic circumstances) and is directed against a person because of his or her gender roles and expectations in a society or culture. A person facing gender-based violence has no choice to refuse or pursue other options without severe social, physical, or psychological consequences. Forms of GBV include sexual violence, sexual abuse, sexual harassment, sexual exploitation, early marriage or forced marriage, gender discrimination, denial (such as education, food, freedom) and female genital mutilation. (Source: UN Women, End Violence Against Women and Girls, Glossary - http://www.endvawnow.org/en/articles/347-glossary-of-terms-from-programming-essentials-and-monitoring-and-evaluation-sections.html)
  • Gendering

    This is a concept of feminist theory with a denotative meaning of integrating the gender perspective in the understanding and construction of persons, phenomena, reflections, things, relationships, sectors of action, societal subsystems and institutions. In relation to people, the term gendering refers to socialisation in the domain of the dominant norms of gender, as well as the adoption of alternative gender identity (such as transsexual, transgender and queer), and the transcendence of all the recognised modes of how to be, live and subvert gender (gender fluidity). (Source: Šribar, R. “Glossary of common terms in gender equality and feminist theory”, Gendering Science: Slovenian Surveys and Studies in the EU Paradigms, 2015)
  • Harmful practices

    Customary or traditional practices that are harmful and discriminatory, and that obstructs the freedom of women and girls. Examples of such harmful practices are female genital mutilation, early and forced marriage, and so-called honor-crimes. These practices are regarded as harmful because they are unnecessary and dangerous, violating fundamental human rights of women and they can involve or lead to suffering and health problems. (Source: UNFPA Issue 5: Harmful practices - http://www.unfpa.org/resources/issue-5-harmful-practices)
  • Hegemonic masculinity

    A cultural norm that continuously connects men to power and economic achievements. This pattern of masculinity, which shapes the hegemonic position, is not only adverse to equality and inclusion, but also brings disadvantages and costs for men. (Source: European Institute for Gender Equality, Gender Equality Glossary and Thesaurus - http://eige.europa.eu/rdc/thesaurus) 
  • Heteronormativity

    Refers to heterosexuality being the norm, and includes the assumption of a person’s heterosexuality. Heteronormativity is what makes heterosexuality seem coherent, natural and privileged. It involves the assumption that everyone is ‘naturally’ heterosexual, and that heterosexuality is an ideal, superior to homosexuality or bisexuality. (Source: European Institute for Gender Equality, Gender Equality Glossary and Thesaurus - http://eige.europa.eu/rdc/thesaurus) 
  • Honor crimes

    Crimes committed in the name of honor, most often by male family members against female family members. 
  • Hypermasculinity

    An exaggerated image of hegemonic masculinity, mainly in the media. It overemphasizes the ideals, such as physical strength, aggression and sexuality set out for men, thereby reinforcing them.
  • Indirect violence

    Indirect violence in a gender context focuses pre­dominantly on the attitudes, stereotypes and cultural norms that underpin gendered practices and may cause gender-based forms of direct violence.
  • Intersex

    An umbrella term to denote a number of different variations in a person’s bodily characteristics that do not match strict medical definitions of female or male. These characteristics may be chromosomal, hormonal and/or anatomical, and may be present to differing degrees. Many variants of sex characteristics are immediately detected at birth, or even before. Sometimes these variants become evident only at later stages in life, often during puberty. While most intersex people are healthy, a very small percentage may have medical conditions that might be life-threatening if not treated promptly. (Source: European Institute for Gender Equality, Gender Equality Glossary and Thesaurus - http://eige.europa.eu/rdc/thesaurus) 
  • Marital rape

    Refers to the non-consensual vaginal, anal or oral penetration of the body of another person where the penetration is of a sexual nature, with any bodily part or with an object, as well as to any other non-consensual acts of a sexual nature, by a spouse or ex-spouse or by a former or current partner with whom a victim of rape is or has been living in a partnership recognized by the national law. Causing a spouse or ex-spouse or a former or current partner to engage in non-consensual acts of a sexual nature with a third person is also considered as marital rape. (Source: Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence, Council of Europe Treaty Series, no. 210, 2011) 
  • Masculinities

    The socially constructed perceptions of being a man and implies that there are many different and changing definitions of manhood and of how men are expected to behave. 
  • Maternity leave

    Leave to which a woman is entitled for a continuous period allocated before and/or after giving birth in accordance with national legislation and practice. (Source: European Commission, 100 Words for Equality: A glossary of Terms on Equality between Women and Men, 1998)
  • Parental leave

    The individual right, in principle on a non-transferable basis, to leave for all male and female workers following the birth or adoption of a child, to enable them to take care of that child. (Source: European Commission, 100 Words for Equality: A glossary of Terms on Equality between Women and Men, 1998)
  • Paternity leave

    Usually a fixed amount of leave for the father of a child which may be taken at the time of birth, or fixed amounts of time in any year or period of years which may be taken for reasons concerning the care responsibilities of a father for his child. (Source: European Commission, 100 Words for Equality: A glossary of Terms on Equality between Women and Men, 1998)
  • Patriarchy

    Historical power imbalances and cultural practices and systems that confer power and offer men and boys more social and material benefits than women and girls. (Source: United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women, 2003)
  • Positive action or positive measure

    The term ‘positive measures’ refers to action aimed at favouring access by members of certain categories of people, in this particular case, women, to rights which they are guaranteed, to the same extent as members of other categories, in this particular case, men.In some cases, the reason that discrimination is found to occur is due to the fact that the same rule is applied to everyone without consideration of relevant differences. In order to remedy and prevent this kind of situation, governments, employers and service providers must ensure that they take steps to adjust their rules and practices to take such differences into consideration – that is, they must do something to adjust current policies and measures. (Source: European Institute for Gender Equality, Gender Equality Glossary and Thesaurus - http://eige.europa.eu/rdc/thesaurus)
  • Pre-natal sex selection

    Pre-natal sex selection and the abortion of female foetuses are forms of harmful practices driven by the tradition of patrilineal inheritance in many societies, coupled with a reliance on boys to provide economic support, to ensure security in old age and to perform death rites. They are part of a set of social norms that place greater value on sons than daughters. In addition, a general trend towards declining family size, occasionally fostered by stringent policies restricting the number of children that people are allowed to have, is reinforcing a deeply rooted preference for male offspring. Sex selection can occur before a pregnancy is established (pre-implantation), during pregnancy through pre-natal sex detection and selective abortion, or following birth through infanticide or child neglect. Sex selection is sometimes used for family balancing purposes, but far more typically occurs because of a systematic preference for boys. (Source: European Institute for Gender Equality, Gender Equality Glossary and Thesaurus - http://eige.europa.eu/rdc/thesaurus)
  • Rape

    Any non-consensual vaginal, anal or oral penetration of a sexual nature of the body of another person, with any bodily part or with an object, as well as any other non-consensual acts of a sexual nature by the use of coercion, violence, threats, duress, ruse, surprise or other means, regardless of the perpetrator’s relationship to the victim. Causing another person to engage in non-consensual acts of a sexual nature with a third person is also considered as rape. (Source: European Institute for Gender Equality, Gender Equality Glossary and Thesaurus - http://eige.europa.eu/rdc/thesaurus) 
  • Reproductive health

    A state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, in all matters relating to the reproductive system and to its functions and processes. This includes sexual health, the purpose of which is the enhancement of life and personal relations, and not merely counselling and care related to reproduction and sexually transmitted diseases. (Source: International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), September 1994) 
  • Secondary victimization

    The victimization of a victim of any act of violence and trafficking in human beings. To limit or avoid any risk of secondary victimization, a number of specific counselling, support and assistance services must be provided to a victim, as well as general procedural and service rights, including information rights, respect for victims’ dignity during questioning, anonymity for certain victims, trials behind closed doors in certain cases, screening from the perpetrator during testimony, officers specialized in victims’ issues, etc. (Sources: European Commission, Member States’ legislation, national policies, practices and approaches concerning the victims of crime: Final study, 2009, and European Institute for Gender Equality, Gender Equality Glossary and Thesaurus - http://eige.europa.eu/rdc/thesaurus) 
  • Sex

    Biological and physiological characteristics, which define humans as female or male. These sets of biological characteristics are not mutually exclusive, as there are individuals who possess both (see definition of Intersex), but these characteristics tend to differentiate humans as females or males. (Source: WHO Technical Consultation on Sexual Health, January 2002)
  • Sexism

    Actions or attitudes that discriminate against people based solely on their gender. Sexism is linked to power in that those with power are typically treated with favour and those without power are typically discriminated against. Sexism is also related to stereotypes since the discriminatory actions or attitudes are frequently based on false beliefs or over generalizations about gender and on seeing gender as relevant when it is not. (Source: Mediterranean Institute of Gender Studies, Glossary of Gender-Related Terms, 2009)
  • Sexual health

    A state of physical, emotional, mental and social well-being related to sexuality; it is not merely the absence of disease, dysfunction or infirmity. 
  • Sexual Orientation

    An individual’s capacity for emotional and sexual attraction to, and intimate and sexual relations with individuals of a different or the same gender, or more than one gender. (Source: Yogyakarta Principles on the Application of International Human Rights Law in relation to Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity as cited in United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees Protection on Policy and Legal Advice Section Division on International Protection Services Geneva, 21 November 2008)
  • Sexuality

    A central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identity and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy and reproduction, as experiences throughout our lives. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. While sexuality can include all of these dimensions, not all of them are always experiences or expressed. Sexuality is influences by the interaction of biological, psychological, social, economic, political, cultural, ethical, legal, historical and religious and spiritual factors. (Source: Mediterranean Institute of Gender Studies, Glossary of Gender-Related Terms, 2009)
  • Statistical gender bias

    Systematically distorted statistics due to prejudiced actions or thoughts based on gender-based perceptions that women are not equal to men. Context also plays a role, and answers to questions on physical and sexual violence against women would for example be based if the partner or other relatives were present during the interview. (Source: European Institute for Gender Equality, Gender Equality Glossary and Thesaurus - http://eige.europa.eu/rdc/thesaurus) 
  • Structural violence

    Violence without a clear actor, built into and inherent in the structure of a society.  Its general formula is power and inequality. Structural violence is often aimed at women, and is maintained through gender socialization, gender stereotyping and a constant threat of violence, all of which insidiously identify women as inferior, influencing their actions at all levels. Structural violence is understood as social exploitation and unequal power (and consequently, unequal life chances), which become part of the social order. With regard to violence against women, structural inequality and the unbalance of power create the conditions for the social subordination of women. (Source: European Institute for Gender Equality, Gender Equality Glossary and Thesaurus - http://eige.europa.eu/rdc/thesaurus) 
  • Symbolic violence

    Gentle, invisible, pervasive violence exercised through cognition and misrecognition, knowledge and sentiment, often with the unwitting consent or complicity of the dominated. It is embedded in the very modes of action and structures of cognition of individuals, and imposes the spectre of legitimacy of the social order characterized by masculine domination. Manifestations of symbolic violence give recognition to structural and direct violence. (Source: European Institute for Gender Equality, Gender Equality Glossary and Thesaurus - http://eige.europa.eu/rdc/thesaurus) 
  • Violence against women

    Any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life. Violence against women shall be understood to encompass, but not be limited to, the following: (a) Physical, sexual and psychological violence occurring in the family, including battering, sexual abuse of female children in the household, dowry-related violence, marital rape, female genital mutilation and other traditional practices harmful to women, non-spousal violence and violence related to exploitation; (b) Physical, sexual and psychological violence occurring within the general community, including rape, sexual abuse, sexual harassment and intimidation at work, in educational institutions and elsewhere, trafficking in women and forced prostitution; (c) Physical, sexual and psychological violence perpetrated or condoned by the State, wherever it occurs. (Source: General Assembly Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women (A/RES/48/104, of 19 December 1993))
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